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Cardiovascular Disease Risk and its Association with Body Mass Index in Malaysians Based on the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension Risk Prediction Chart

Background: Malaysia has experienced an epidemiological transition, with a decrease in deaths due to communicable diseases and a marked increase in the rate of non-communicable diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study determined the changes proportional to CVD risk and its association with body mass index (BMI) among Malaysians. Study design: Comparative nationwide cross-sectional study. Methods: Data from three National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS 2006, NHMS 2011, and NHMS 2015) were obtained and reanalysed. CVD risk was determined on the basis of the World Health Organisation/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction chart, which classifies individuals aged 40-79 years into five levels of 10-year CVD risk (Risk 1: <10%, Risk 2: 10% to <20%, Risk 3: 20% to <30%, Risk 4: 30% to <40%, and Risk 5: ≥ 40%). Results: CVD Risk 1 decreased among men aged 40-49 years but increased in the other age groups. Among women, CVD Risk 1 increased in the age group of 70-79 years, but decreased in the other age groups. CVD risk was significantly associated with BMI in the younger age groups (40-49 and 50-59 years among men; 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years among women). The highest proportion of CVD Risk 5 was observed among preobese men (19.0%) and obese women (21.7%) in the oldest age group. Conclusion: The increasing CVD risk in younger age groups is a major concern. Therefore, interventions focusing on patients with high CVD risk and overweight are warranted.


Mohamad Hasnan Ahmad, Nobuo Nishi, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff and Tahir Aris

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