Reach Us +44-1522-440391
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.


Comparison of Three Modes of Exercise in Reducing Stress and Improving Self-Esteem among Underserved Children at Title I Elementary Schools

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to: 1) examine if Health Qigong is effective in improving children's psychological well-being, and 2) compare the relative effectiveness of Health Qigong with two traditional Western exercises (i.e., aerobic exercise and physical education activities) on children's mental health. Methods: Using a pre and post-test quasi-experimental design, we compare the effects of three different modes of exercise (i.e., aerobic exercise, mind-body exercise, and regular physical education) on reducing stress (n=101) and improving self-esteem (n=68) in children over a 16-week period. Results: Our study revealed a significant improvement in reducing stress (p=0.006) and improving self-esteem (p<0.001) using the repeated measures analysis of variance. No significant difference was detected among the three exercise groups. Conclusion: It appears that the three different modes of exercise have a similar effect on improving psychological well-being for children. Health Qigong may be considered as an alternative mind-body exercise for children who may not enjoy competitive sports and do not fit in well with conventional exercise activities.


Claudia Wang, Hongtao Li and Brittanie Lockard

Abstract | Full-Text | PDF

Share this  Facebook  Twitter  LinkedIn  Google+
Flyer image

Abstracted/Indexed in

  • ProQuest
  • Google Scholar
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • CiteFactor
  • CINAHL Complete
  • Scimago
  • Electronic Journals Library
  • Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)
  • EMCare
  • WorldCat
  • University Grants Commission
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • Secret Search Engine Labs