Influenza vaccination of Health Care Workers (HCWs) is recommended by several health authorities worldwide aiming to prevent influenza, to reduce staff absenteeism due to illness and to protect vulnerable patient populations from the increased morbidity and mortality that influenza carries. However, despite recommendations and proven efficacy and cost effectiveness of influenza vaccine, vaccination rates are persistently low globally. Aim:The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence HCW’s decision to participate in flu vaccination, to classify them according to the PRECEDE-PROCEED model of health promotion planning and to summarize the characteristics of health promotion interventions that have proved helpful in increasing influenza vaccination rates among health care workers. Methods: A literature review was performed in MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases during the last decade. Keywords used included: influenza vaccination, health care workers, health promotion interventions and their combination as appropriate. Results: The results of the study revealed that worry about transmission of influenza to relatives knowledge about vaccination effectiveness and trust in it, previous flu vaccination, social pressure and convenience in terms of time and place are some of the factors encourage HCW vaccination, whereas concerns over potential side effects, mistrust in vaccine effectiveness and perception of low susceptibility are the main barriers to HCW acceptance of influenza vaccination. Conclusions: Effective interventions utilize educational and vaccine promotion campaigns, ensure convenience for employee participation in vaccination, provide free vaccine and small incentives, emphasize influenza vaccination as a patient safety issue and rely upon active management support in order to succeed.
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