Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) has become one of the most frequent types of Valvular Heart Disease (VHD). In recent years, the development of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have spurred controversy over whether or not males as well as females should obtain the vaccine against the HPV disease. HPV vaccination is an important public health issue because it prevents cancer. The HPV vaccination reduces rates of transmission of genital warts and certain HPV related cancers in males as well as reducing the incidence of cervical cancer in women. The development of the HPV vaccine has further improved opportunities for healthcare providers to effectively combat the human papillomavirus disease. Presently, there are three vaccines marketed in the United States and approved by the FDA that can protect against the sexually transmitted infection of HPV. They are Gardasil®, Gardasil 9®, Cervarix®. All three prevent infections with HPV types 16 and 18, which are the two highest risk that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer in women and a higher percentage of other HPV-related cancers in men and women. In this article the researcher will focus on the three Human Papillomavirus vaccines, controversy over the HPV vaccine and attitudes of male and female college students regarding the HPV vaccine.
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