Background:Type II diabetes mellitus is a public health problem in both developed and developing countries which has increased alarmingly, giving the disease the dimension of an epidemic. The etiology of diabetes is multifactorial involving genetic, environmental, and behavioral origins. The aim of present study was to review the role of exercise and nutrition in type II diabetes mellitus. Method and material:The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to exercise and nutrition in type II diabetes mellitus. Results : During recent years, the association between physical activity and type II diabetes mellitus management has been assessed by a number of studies. It is well established that physical activity produces general and specific health benefits for diabetic patients. The basic principles of an effective exercise program are the intensity, duration and frequency of exercise in an appropriate environment. Usually, low-intensity and long-duration exercise programs are considered the most suitable for diabetic patients. Regarding dietary choices, it is widely accepted that healthy nutrition is the basis for the treatment of type II diabetes since it contributes positively to the maintenance of blood glucose within normal range and minimizes the complications of the disease. Conclusions : As it is supported by published evidence, encouragement to adopt healthy dietary choices in conjunction with increase of physical activity and reduce of sedentary behaviors is a successful public health approach for type II diabetes mellitus prevention and management.