Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Campus FKIK UMY, Jl Lingkar Selatan, Kasihan, Bantul, DI Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Received Date: 18 January 2018; Accepted Date: 18 February 2018; Published Date: 26 February 2018
Citation: Rahayu BA (2018) Dangdut Music Affects Behavior Change at School and Adolescent Youth inIndonesia: A Literature Review. Health Sci J. Vol. 12 No. 1: 552.
Copyright: © 2018 Rahayu BA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Dangdut music is one type of music in Indonesia. The problems that exist today are the lyrics of Dangdut songs tend to lead to sexual and show the norm of impoliteness. Though Dangdut music is heard by all circles children, adolescents, adults, to the elderly. Objective: Review the literature related to the influence of Dangdut music on changes in the behavior of schoolage children and adolescents. Methods: To achieve the predetermined objectives the researcher wants to identify, assess and synthesize by way of literature tracking in journals by using Dangdut music. Result: 7 articles literature review, mentioning lyrics of Dangdut songs in the present era many meaningful seronok and lead to irreverence to be heard by school-age children and adolescents, which influence their behavior.
Dangdut music; Behavior change; School; Adolescent children
Music is defined as a form of expression of feelings poured in the form of tones and poems. Music mengandung rhythms, songs and harmony generated from the tools that produce sounds. Music widely used as a therapy, one of them is modal therapy. Music used in elderly patients to improve physical and mental qualities. The musical effectiveness as this therapy has been widely evidenced by the influence or relationship primarily to provide calm to the listener .
Music and songs are two things that are very fun for entertainment. Dangdut music is one type of music in Indonesia which early in the emergence of Dangdut song is underestimated and is regarded as the type of music of ordinary people and tends down. Sedangkan current conditions all the circles almost fall hearts with Dangdut music. Almost all electronic media like radio and television every day include Dangdut music in their show .
Dangdut music is typically composed of drum beats, blowing flutes, which melayu-hariu. Music has managed to hypnotize listeners to follow the strains of the song. In addition to the music, Dangdut also contains rocking action, and song lyrics. Conditions that adamusic Dangdut in the current era or on the way, temponya music Dangdut more bit and meetings, broad themes, senggakan-senggakan burning spirit, the lyrics are very easy and straightforward so that school-aged children fall in love to memorize the song .
From the results of existing research, music is considered to affect the behavior of someone. While the behavior of a person is influenced by the thoughts or perceptions of a person from what is seen, heard and observed. The problem in this era is how Dangdut music especially Dangdut koplo with all the parts- its share of both the lyrics of the song, and the shake of the model in the video clips affect the perception and behavior of schoolchildren .
Dangdut music is music of a million people, where from the children to the elderly familiar with Dangdut music. Another problem with the development of the latest songs many of which carry the theme of sexuality. Although the songs with the theme of sexuality have been banned by the Indonesian Broadcasting Commission (KPI) Center, Dangdut songs themed sexuality can still be heard in homes by music listeners ranging from children to the elderly .
The above conditions are of course contrary to the spirit of character education that is being developed to realize a more dignified Indonesian society. Music can affect human psychology especially in children; music also affects the intelligence and growth of children in relation to social and communication skills to emotions and then from it is indirectly music will have a major influence on the lives of children .
The development of music in Indonesia felt less supportive to the relationship with child growth. Some time ago on Monday 28/10/2013 there is sad news where some male students in SD Negeri Kemiling Bandar Lampung swayed to practice the caesar joget while opening zipper pants in front of female students. Besides also sticking to the news of a case of a child who was just sitting in grade 3 SD dared to open the skirt of her daughter's classmates. Seeing this condition is clear that the music Dangdut affect the child's behavior .
Some research that examines about Dangdut music much related to how its influence to behavior, perception, change that happened after exposure with Dangdut music. From the background above how Dangdut music in Indonesia tehadap the development of school-age children and adolescents? What are the changes that occur in school-age children and teens after exposure to Dangdut music? The purpose of this paper is to answer the question through a review of literature related to Dangdut music in school-age children and adolescents in Indonesia. In particular to identify changes that occurs in school-age children and adolescents after exposure to Dangdut songs in Indonesia.
The search strategy of the author in making this literature review is to search online journals, among others in ProQuest, DOAJ, EBSCO, Pubmed, Google Scholar IPI and Google Cendikia, using keywords: Dangdut music, behavioral aberrations, school-aged children and age teens.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
The inclusion criteria in the search for articles for this review literature is an article that discusses Dangdut music and compares with the impact of Dangdut music exposure on changes in the behavior of school-age children and adolescents. The year range used as a reference in this literature review is from 2013 to 2017. Exclusion criteria in this article search are not for therapy and not for children with autism (Table 1).
Table 1 It shows the selection of article.
|Percobaan||Keywords||ProQuest||DOAJ||EBSCO||Pubmed||IPI||Google Scholar||Google Cendikia|
|First trial||Dangdut music OR Indonesian music AND Behavior of child school age year and teenagers Full text, peer review||385||0||1||0||0||403 results (0.10 sec)|
|Music Dangdut + Perilaku Pada Anak usiase kolah dan Remaja Full Text, Peer Review||745 results (0.10 sec)|
|Second trial||Dangdut music OR Indonesian music AND Deviation Behavior of child school age year and teenagers, Full text, peer review, AND Perception||318||0||0||0||1||327 results (0.09 sec)|
|Music Dangdut + Penyimpangan Perilaku Pada Anak usia sekolah dan Remaja, Full Text, Peer Review||0||0||372 results (0.06 sec)|
|Third trial||2013-2017||32||0||0||0||1||120 results (0.49 sec)||185 results (0.08 sec)|
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
1. Autism and Mental disorder
Several studies have been conducted to find out how Dangdut music affects behavioral changes in school-age children as well as adolescents. The current music we can call the term invisible teacher, meaning the songs are heard children become educators who instill morality and character that then affect the behavior of children. The educators and parents have realized that success is not achieved by those who intellectually intelligent, but also who have good and strong character.
In this literature review the author tries to analyze seven articles related to Dangdut music. The first article titled sexuality in Dangdut Song Lyrics (Analysis Metaphor Meaning). In this article the authors perform a qualitative analysis on the lyrics of Dangdut music. Where from the analysis obtained lyrics are assessed vulgar and exploit lust. The author considers found lyric Dangdut song bermetafora leading to issues related to impoliteness. The conclusion presented in this article is that the power of Dangdut lies in the ability to express emotional reality with the use of vulgar language beyond the limits of decency and decency to convey social issues that are not commonly found in other musical genres such that not good to be played in children .
The second article is adult Dangdut phenomenon at SD Negeri Tamansari Yogyakarta. In this article the authors use a qualitative analysis of the time when children begin exposure Dangdut songs, how independence of children, how language, emotional and attitude to the order and awareness of variety. The results showed that elementary school children used reasoning only to memorize the lyrics of the song and draw simple conclusions from the lyrics of Dangdut songs that students sang but inversely proportional to the academic ability. Most of the students who love Dangdut songs have entered masapuber and have an interest among the opposite sex which is characterized by mockery of matchmaking, complaint or acknowledgment and writing. It has more independence but should be directed and supervised in cooperation. The language develops like other students but is more daring in arguing or making excuses. More emotional, more cheerful and passionate in school activities. Tend to commit violations on the rules they already understand. From the religious consciousness of the children of Tamansari 2 State Elementary School still require supervision in performing the worship with orderly .
In the third article titled Exposure Phenomenon of Dangdut Song Berlirik SeronokTada Child Language Imitation Development (Sociolinguistic Study in the Context of Speech Language) is using a qualitative analysis study. In this article analyzes the lyrics of Dangdut songs as well as how the language changes in children after exposure to Dangdut music. The results achieved describe the situation and condition of the social environment of children who are exposed to a lot of entertainment in the form of songs that lyrics are not in accordance with the age of anak. Berdasarkan research also revealed that the child is easy to memorize the lyrics of Dangdut songs because the rhythm is good to hear and often heard the child in the social environment. In contrast, the child did not know children's songs. The third result shows that children's language development that has been affected by vocabulary has negative connotations and is inappropriate for children of elementary school age .
The fourth article titled Youth and Music Dangdut (Receiption Studies Music Dangdut in Youth). In this article also uses a qualitative analysis. The analysis is how teenage perceptions of Dangdut songs in Indonesia. Hasil obtained is the author of this article sees that the similarity of responses between the three informants regarding the appearance of Dangdut artists at this time that is not polite and erotic it turns out the three are very dislike, do not accept or opposite to the appearance tersebut. Peneliti see that the dislike of the three informants to Dangdut music of today that singers are more concerned with swaying and sexy appearance and tawdry because they felt that they had been raised in an environment with eastern culture. If in the west sway and clothes like that are still tolerated, but not in the eastern culture like in Indonesia the majority of people who live are Muslims so that the values are cultivated from small are polite, ethical and moral values in accordance with the teachings that have been embedded from small well in the family environment, school, workplace and even the surrounding social environment that continuously cultivate ethical values from time to time .
The fifth article titled Sarcasm in the Dangdut Song Lyrics (Semantic Review). In this study using analysis studies on the lyrics of Dangdut songs. In this study the analysis performed using indicator penialian, the first indicator used is character education seen from the aspects of taste, intention, moral and character. Sedang second indicator is a change in meaning can be a concept change and or in the form of a change of concepts and changes in values, feelings, insinuations, banter and hurt. Conclusion of the authors of this article is the lyrics of the song Dangdut present not only damage the aesthetics but also ethics that can affect moral damage, especially in children. Pendidikan characters implanted early can be damaged instantly with the lyrics of the song Dangdut the present .
Sixth article entitled Interpretation of Message in lyrics as open behavior (Study on parents about children behavior after gymnastics accompanied by remix Dangdut Vulgar song in superindo mergangsan sub-district Yogyakarta). In this article using analytical studies to find out how the influence of children's behavior after exposure Dangdut music. Children's behavior tends to behave strangely after attending regular gymnastic activities every week in Superindo Mergangsan District, such as behavior mocking peers with lyrics and wobble that he created sendiri. Meskipun not lead to social deviation, the behavior of children who are not polite look when the old ornag advised instead singing vulgar song lyrics in front of others while moving his body to the other person like ejekkan .
Seventh article with title Habit of Listening to Adult Themed Songs and Watching Adult Sinetron Influence on Child Behavior In MI Ma'arif Global Blotongan Salatiga Lesson Year 2011/2012. In this seventh article using a quantitative approach. In this study, data collection using questionnaires instrument to capture the data habits of listening to the songs themed adult, the habit of watching adult sinetron and the behavior of anak. Hasil lies in high qualification on the habit of listening to songs themed adult and the habit of watching adult sinetron. Sedangkan analysis of the behavior of children lies in the qualifications quite baik. Conclusion is derived from the processing is there is a significant influence between the habit of listening to songs Dangdut with child behavior, and there is a significant influence between the habit of watching adult sinetron with behavior of anak. Hasil correlation both shown that the results obtained together the habit of listening to Dangdut songs and watching soap operas dewasamempengaruh child behavior.
From the seven journals about Dangdut music that there is a similarity of concepts used, namely, all literary journals analyze the lyrics that exist in Dangdut songs and find out the changes that occur in the child's behavior after exposure Dangdut songs. And obtained the results that the seven journals have been criticizing the lyrics of Dangdut music easy to remember so that children memorized with lyric lagunya. Anak and teenagers who exposed Dangdut songs also follow even make their own movements in accordance with his imagination .
Dangdut music that is nice to hear even give a new spirit or energy for listeners, Dangdut music lyrics using a familiar language we hear, make children easy to imitate and memorize the Dangdut song while following the strains of the tone. This is indirectly that the term invisible teacher is true. In addition to affecting the behavior indirectly and directly affect the child's psychological environment, this is in line with research that has been written in the psychology of child and adolescent development by Syamsu  which "the opportunity to involve themselves in various social activities will increase social insight and more social participation will be the greater the social competence of adolescents in which good social exposure will produce a good change as well [11,12].
The review of this literature review gets the result that the Dangdut music is nice to hear even give the spirit or new energy for the listener, Dangdut music lyrics using familiar language we hear, make the child easy to imitate and memorize the Dangdut song while following the strains of the tone. And school-age kids and teenagers who are exposed to Dangdut songs are lyrical or lyrical songs that do not fit with their age have changed both in behavior, language and way of speaking, attitude, emotion and even affect their religion. Seeing this is indeed true that the term laagu is an invisible teacher to be an educator who instills morality and character that then influences behavior.
In this literature review, the author only found the journal Indonesia alone, because in the journal International authors did not find a journal related to the theme of Dangdut music.
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