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Determine the Level of Asthma Control among Patients With Bronchial Asthma at Chest OPD, Sri Ramachandra Hospital, Chennai-116

M. Malarvizhi1*, B. Hariprasad2 and M. Bhavani3

1Department of Nursing, SRU, Porur, Chennai, India

2Department of Chest and T.B., SRMC 7 RI, Chennai, India

3Depatment of Human Genetics, SRU, India

*Corresponding Author:
M. Malarvizhi
Lecturer, Faculty of Nursing, SRU, Porur, Chennai, India

Received Date: 14.06.2016; Accepted Date: 09.08.2016; Published Date: 16.08.2016

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Asthma is a long term health problem affects 300 million people worldwide and 15 million people in India. It accounts for 0.5% of national burden and 0.2% of death. It is considered to be a prototype of psychosomatic illness. The various triggers for asthma includes, allergic, infective, climatic and emotional factors.

Background of the Study

The theme for world Asthma day, 2011 is you can control your Asthma' as framed by Global Initiatives for asthma (GINA) in order to create awareness and control asthma. It’s like an iceberg, that only 11% asthma patients are being identified and remaining 89% are either not or wrongly diagnosed. Hence, necessary measures to be taken to cure it before it becomes fatal condition. However, yoga can increase fitness and reduce stress, which may help control asthma. Hence the level of control needs to be identified and measures to be initiated as earlier.

Need for the Study

Education seems to be a positive predictor of physical and mental health among patients with chronic illness. Research suggests that social support and education on control measures by the health care professionals is advantageous for promoting their quality of life.


1. To determine the level of asthma control among patients with bronchial asthma.

2. To associate the level of asthma control with the selected demographic variables among patients with bronchial asthma.


Research Design : Evaluative approach

Sample : Patients with bronchial asthma

Sample size : 60

Setting : Chest OPD, Sri Ramachandra Hospital

Sampling technique : Random sampling

Tool : Pharmacy Asthma Control Screening Tool (PACS)

Tool description

Ask the patient if he/ she has experienced any of the following in the last month (Tick) (Table 1).

Table 1 Tool description.

Criterion Never Once a week or less More than once a week Not sure
Symptoms of asthma, cough, wheeze, shortness of breath        
Waking at night because of asthma        
Chest tightness on walking        
Difficulty in performing vigorous activity like running, lifting heavy objects, exercise        
Difficulty in performing moderate activities like vacuuming, climbing flights of stairs        
Asthma Control Good Partial Poor Not sure

Data analysis: Descriptive and Inferential statistics, Results: The major findings of the study are depicted below in tables and graphs.

Table 2 and 3 depicts the frequency and percentage distribution of the demographic variables of patients with bronchial asthma. Among which 23 (38%) belongs to the age group of 20-30 years and 36 (60%) of them are male patients, and majority 33 (55%) had primary education, 27 (18%) are unskilled labors with the income of Rs. 10,001 to 15,000 are 16 (27%), 28 (47%) are living in the semi-urban areas, 35 (58%) are non smokers, 32 (54%) had family history of asthma in their first degree relative, 18 ( 30%) had comorbid illness of hypertension.

Table 2 Frequency and percentage distribution of the demographic variables among patients with bronchial asthma.

Demographic Variables N=60
No. %
1. Age (in yrs)    
a. 20-39 23 38
b. 40-59 22 37
c. 59-60 15 25
d. >60 - -
2. Gender    
a. Male 36 60
b. Female 24 40
3. Educational status    
a. No formal education 12 20
b.  Primary school 33 55
c. High school 15 25
d. Higher secondary - -
e. Degree - -
4. Marital status    
a. Married 10 17
b. Unmarried 23 38
c. Divorced - -
d. Widow 27 45
5. Occupation    
a. Coolie 10 25
b. unskilled 27 18
c. Skilled 12 30
d. Professional 11 27
6. Income (inRs) per month    
a. ≤ 5000 5 8
b. 5001-10,000 15 25
c. 10,001-15,0000 16 27
d. 15,001-20,000 12 20
e. >20,001 12 20
7. Residence    


  12   20
b. Semi-urban 28 47
c. Urban 20 33
8. Type of family    
a. Joint 23 38
b. Nuclear 22 37
c. Extended 15 25
9. Smoking habit    
a. Non smoker 35 58
b. Cigaratte smoker 25 42
10. Duration of asthma(yrs)    
a. <6 months 23 38
b. ≤ 1 12 20
c. 1-5 25 42
11. Family history of asthma    
a. First degree relative 32 54
b. No First degree relative 28 46
12. Presence of co-morbid medical illness    
a. Diabetes mellitus 16 27
b. Hypertension 18 30
c. Cardiac disease 10 17
d. Bone disease - -
e. Gastro-intestinal disease 16 26

Table 3 Overall mean and standard deviation of level of asthma control among patients with asthma (N=60).

Mean Standard deviation
10.9 4.38

Figure 1 depicts the percentage distribution of the asthma symptom experienced by the patients in the last month. Overall it showed that 56% of them are in the poor state of asthma control, 20% of them have partial control and 15% are not sure about their asthma control.


Figure 1: Percentage distribution of level of symptom experienced in the last month among patients with bronchial asthma.

Figure 2 depicts that asthma control was classified into two categories which includes well controlled as good or partial experience of symptoms and poorly controlled as poor way of experiencing the symptom control in the last month (PACS). The analysis shows that 71% of them are in the poorly controlled state of their asthma severity.


Figure 2: Percentage distribution of level of control among patients with bronchial asthma.

There was an significant association between asthma control with the age, duration of illness.


Prevention from the complications is an essential key in the asthma management. Collaborative management is essential to improve their quality of life and prevent from deterioration of lung function. Nurses can implement the protocols/policies to motivate patients to improve their adherence with poor disease control.

Holistic Nursing should focus on health care sector in which the care of individuals, families and communities to maintain optimal health and quality of life.

Effective asthma management requires routinely tracking symptoms and measuring how well lungs are functioning.


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