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Knowledge of People about the Tuberculosis Infection in the Health Center in Baghdad

Ridhaa Mohammed Hasan Al-Saadawi and Abeer Gatea*

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iraq

*Corresponding Author:
Abeer Gatea
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tehran, Iraq
Tel: +0096 4772 3212 850
E-mail: abeergatea@hotmail.com

Received date: 01 September 2018; Accepted date: 05 February 2019; Published date: 12 February 2019

Citation: Al-Saadawi RMH, Gatea A (2019) Knowledge of People about the Tuberculosis Infection in the Health Center in Baghdad. Health Sci J Vol.13.No.1:623. DOI: 10.21767/1791-809X.1000623

Copyright: © 2019 Al-Saadawi RMH, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 
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Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis is the second-most common cause of death from infectious disease (after those due to HIV/AIDS). Aim: To identify the knowledge of people about TB disease in the health center and to find out any relationships between demographic characteristic and knowledge of people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at one of the health centers of Baghdad Health Department in Al-Rusafa in the Sheikh Omar area for the period from January to 2018. The sample size was 150 people who reviewed the center for treatment and diagnosis. This health center is a public center that provides services for women, children and the elderly. It also has a special section for men. Samples were collected through a preprepared questionnaire containing demographic information and the interview was conducted directly with the auditor. The data analysis through descriptive (frequency, percent, p-value). Results: The highest percentage of the participants 107/150 (71.3%) still in the age groups 20-24 years, the female cases 79/150 (52.7%) were higher more than the male cases 71/150 (47.3%). The distribution of the visitors to the sections of the center, the highest percentage were 42/150 (28%) of the vaccine room followed by the physician room 34/150 (22.7%). Conclusion: We conclude that the highly significant relationship have been found between the department of the center and overall knowledge assessments p=0.004. Not significant relationship has been found between the age groups, gender, marital status, monthly income and overall knowledge assessments at the p=0.145, p=0.750, p=0.073, p=0.777. Recommendation: Educational programs should be carried out to create awareness among the at-risk groups.

Keywords

TB; Knowledge; Program; Significant; Center

Introduction

Tuberculosis is the second-most common cause of death from infectious disease (after those due to HIV/AIDS) [1]. Roughly one-third of the world's population has been infected with M. tuberculosis [2]. With new infections occurring in about 1% of the population each year [3]. However, most infections with M. tuberculosis do not cause TB disease [4], and 90-95% of infections remain asymptomatic [5]. In 2012, an estimated 8.6 million chronic cases were active [6]. In 2010, 8.8 million new cases of TB were diagnosed and 1.20–1.45 million deaths occurred, most of these occurring in developing countries [7,8]. Of these 1.45 million deaths, about 0.35 million occur in those also infected with HIV [9]. China has achieved particularly dramatic progress, with about an 80% reduction in its TB mortality rate between 1990 and 2010 [9]. The number of new cases has declined by 17% between 2004– 2014 [10]. Tuberculosis is more common in developing countries; about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries test positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5– 10% of the US population test positive [11]. Hopes of totally controlling the disease have been dramatically dampened because of a number of factors, including the difficulty of developing an effective vaccine, the expensive and timeconsuming diagnostic process, the necessity of many months of treatment, the increase in HIV-associated tuberculosis, and the emergence of drug-resistant cases in the 1980s [12]. The rates of TB vary with age. In Africa, it primarily affects adolescents and young adults [13]. However, in countries where incidence rates have declined dramatically (such as the United States), TB is mainly a disease of older people and the immune compromised (risk factors are listed above) [14]. Worldwide, 22 "high-burden" states or countries together experience 80% of cases as well as 83% of deaths [10]. The aim of this study to identify the knowledge of people about the TB disease in the health center and to find out any relationships between demographic characteristic and knowledge of people.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted at one of the health centers of Baghdad Health Department in Al-Rusafa in the Sheikh Omar area for the period from January to 2018. The sample size was 150 people who reviewed the center for treatment and diagnosis. This health center is a public center that provides services for women, children and the elderly. It also has a special section for men. Samples were collected through a pre-prepared questionnaire containing demographic information and the interview was conducted directly with the auditor. The data analysis through descriptive (frequency, percent, p- value).

Results

Out of 150 participants, 107/150 (71.3%) still in the age groups 20-24 years, the female cases 79/150 (52.7%) were higher more than the male cases 71/150 (47.3%). Regarding the distribution of the visitors to the sections of the center, the highest percentage 42/150 (28%) of the vaccine room followed by the physician room 34/150 (22.7%). The table shows that the highly significant relationship have been found between the scientific department and overall knowledge assessments p=0.004 (Table 1).

Table 1 Relationship among socio-demographical characteristics variables and overall knowledge assessments.

Var. Groups No. and Percent Overall Assessment C.S.
Under Upper CC=0.186
P=0.145
NS
Age Groups <20 No. 13 6
%  Age Groups 68.40% 31.60%
%  Overall Assessment 17.10% 8.10%
20-24 No. 55 52
%  Age Groups 51.40% 48.60%
%  Overall Assessment 72.40% 70.30%
25-29 No. 6 11
%  Age Groups 35.30% 64.70%
%  Overall Assessment 7.90% 14.90%
30 ≥ No. 2 5
%  Age Groups 28.60% 71.40%
%  Overall Assessment 2.60% 6.80%
Gender    Male No. 35 36 CC=0.026
P=0.750
NS
%  gender 49.30% 50.70%
%  Overall Assessment 46.10% 48.60%
Female No. 41 38
%  gender 51.90% 48.10%
%  Overall Assessment 53.90% 51.40%
Department    Physician room No. 19 15 CC=0.338
P=0.004
HS
%  Scientific Department 55.90% 44.10%
%  Overall Assessment 25.00% 20.30%
Physical room No. 8 8
%  Scientific Department 50.00% 50.00%
%  Overall Assessment 10.50% 10.80%
Radiology No. 7 8
Room %  Scientific Department 46.70% 53.30%
%  Overall Assessment 9.20% 10.80%
Optic room No. 12 3
%  Scientific Department 80.00% 20.00%
%  Overall Assessment 15.80% 4.10%
Vaccine Room No. 11 31
%  Scientific Department 26.20% 73.80%
%  Overall Assessment 14.50% 41.90%
Dental room No. 11 4
%  Scientific Department 73.30% 26.70%
%  Overall Assessment 14.50% 5.40%
Lab. Room No. 8 5
%  Scientific Department 61.50% 38.50%
%  Overall Assessment 10.50% 6.80%

Regarding of marital status, there is no any relation between the marital status and overall knowledge assessment at the value <0.05. For monthly income, the highest percentage was 48% for those with a moderate income. Also, in this the table shows that there is no relationship between the income and knowledge assessment at the value <0.05 (Table 2).

Table 2 Relationship among socio-demographical characteristics variables and overall knowledge assessments.

Variable Groups No. and Percent's Overall Assessment CS
Under Upper
Marital Status Single No. 65 56 CC=0.211
P=0.073
NS
%  marital status 53.70% 46.30%
%  Overall Assessment 85.50% 75.70%
Married No. 7 16
%  marital status 30.40% 69.60%
%  Overall Assessment 9.20% 21.60%
Divorcee No. 4 1
%  marital status 80.00% 20.00%
%  Overall Assessment 5.30% 1.40%
Widow No. 0 1
%  marital status 0.00% 100.00%
%  Overall Assessment 0.00% 1.40%
Monthly Income Good No. 29 32 CC=0.888
P=0.777
NS
%  Monthly Income 47.50% 52.50%
%  Overall Assessment 38.20% 43.20%
Moderate No. 36 36
%  Monthly Income 50.00% 50.00%
%  Overall Assessment 47.40% 48.60%
Low No. 11 6
%  Monthly Income 64.70% 35.30%
%  Overall Assessment 14.50% 8.10%

Discussion

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality and Viet Nam ranks 12 among the 22 high-TB burden countries [15]. In this study we found 71.3% of samples in the age groups 20-24 years with compared with results in Viet Nam 44.9% [15], in Bangladesh 61.7% [16], this refers to the deterioration of the health situation due to the wars, resulting lack of attention to the health aspect and the lack of medicines. Significant differences in TB organ manifestation in association with season, sex and age suggest different pathophysiological mechanisms of disease development [17]. In our study 52.7% of samples were female, other results found in Malaysia 27.7% [18], in Taiwan 54.4% [19] in India 66.8% [20], this indicate that the difference in lifestyle between countries and most countries suffer from poverty. In our study, 80.7% of samples were single compared with results found in Mexico 92.4% [21]; this refers to the different customs and traditions between the two countries. TB patients and their households are characterized by increasingly lower employment income, lower employment rate and higher dependency on public transfer, but the socio/economic deterioration is rather a risk factor for TB [22]. In this study 48% were moderate monthly income, other results found in Denmark 53% [23], in Sudan 14.9% [24], this is due to the difference in the standard of living between countries and most of limited income families as well as unemployment and lack of opportunities for work (Figure 1).

hsj-socio-demographical-characteristics

Figure 1: Relationship among socio-demographical characteristics variables and overall knowledge assessments.

Conclusion

We conclude that the half the number of participants are in the age groups 20-24 years; and mostly were females; single; had a moderate monthly income. Highly significant relationship have been found between the department and overall knowledge assessments at the p=0.004. No significant relationship have been found between the age groups, gender, marital status and monthly income with the overall knowledge assessments at the p-value=0.145, p=0.750, p=0.073, p=0.777.

Recommendation

We need to build the communication strategies like training, timely dissemination of information of policy changes and one-to-one dialogue with private practitioners to dispel misconceptions may enhance TB notification. Trust building strategies like providing feedback about referred cases from private sector, health personnel visit or a liaison private doctor may ensure compliance to public health activities. In addition, educational programs should be carried out to create awareness among the at-risk groups.

References

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