Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of predisposing factors for coronary heart disease in an urban population. It is hoped that an indirect result of this study will be the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the community. Background: Coronary heart disease is a multifactorial disease. There are various predisposing risk factors for coronary heart disease, such as lipidemia, hypertension, smoking, obesity and heredity. Design/Methodology: This was a clinical study carried out in the Municipality of Kallithea in Athens. The sample consisted of 235 people who were users of the Primary Health Care Units in Kallithea. The sample population was informed of and agreed to participate in the study. Research material was collected by taking a medical history, body measurements and blood tests. Findings: It was established that: a) the mean total cholesterol level for the entire study population was 214.48 mg/dl, while a large proportion of the population (42.98%) had cholesterol higher than 230 mg/dl; b) the women also had higher total cholesterol and HDL levels than the men (P<0.001), and consequently had a lower atheromatic index; c) individuals aged 61-70 had higher lipoprotein levels; d) those with hypertension and the obese had worse lipoprotein levels than those with normal blood pressure and weight; f) individuals in manual occupations had lower HDL (48.88 mg/dl) than office workers (53.76 mg/dl) or those in other occupations (53.28 mg/dl) (P<0.001); f) street cleaners differed statistically (significant) from the rest of the population (P<0.050), displaying worse mean blood lipid levels, a higher proportion of family history and a higher proportion of addiction to smoking. Conclusions: This research provides useful information about the health characteristics of the urban population and indirectly contributes to preventive health care planning in the community.