Background: India is enduring a rapid socio-economic, demographic, nutritional and health transition. According to article 47 of the Constitution of India "the State shall regard raising the level of nutrition and standard of living of its people and improvement in public health among its primary duties". However, India has not yet overcome the problems of poverty, under nutrition and communicable diseases.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to highlight the socio-economic transition along with lifestyle modifications which result in urgent health problems in majority of tribal groups.
Methodology: The present study is a compilation of various studied tribal population of India by research scientists. By comparing the tribes from different geographic region and find out the reason of poverty and under nutrition among them even after providing support and funds from government and other organizations was incorporated.
Results/Findings: There was a transition from their early occupation to the present occupation which imbalance life of the tribes. Shift from agriculture or hunting gathering to daily wagers was a severe shock for them which could be the reason for deterioration of their health. The mean value of majority of tribal population was less than 18.5 kg/m2 which was considered as underweight according to guidelines of WHO.
Conclusion: The present study clearly showed that there is a need to identify, reorganize and reallocate resources for tribal communities, based on their requirements. The design of the development programmes and the health needs of the tribal population have to be identified keeping in mind their habitat and socio cultural practices.
Anup Kumar Kapoor and Meenal Dhall